1 2 3 4
 
  • Почему не тянет двигатель ВАЗ 2114?
    Список возможных причин
  • Почему не работает панель приборов ВАЗ 2114?
    Массовая проблема нашего автопрома
  • Подбираем размер дисков на ВАЗ 2114. Что нужно учитывать при выборе?
  • Что делать, если руль бьет на малой скорости или при торможении?

Лада Гольф. Лада гольф


Лада Гольф — Википедия (с комментариями)

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

Лада Гольф

Общие данные

Годы пр-ва: 1999-2001

ПТ-125

<tr><td width=25%>Марка:</td><td >ПТ-125</td></tr><tr><td width=25%>Тип:</td><td >электродвигатель постоянного тока</td></tr><tr><td width=25%>Максимальная мощность:</td><td >25 кВт кВт </td></tr><tr><td width=25%>Макс. скорость:</td><td >40 км/ч</td></tr>

На рынке

Другое

Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

Лада Гольф — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

ВАЗ-1004

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

ВАЗ-1002

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

ВАЗ-1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

Источник

  • Мирзоев Г.К., Казаров А.П. [http://www.aae-press.ru/j0060/art008.htm Разработка электромобилей ОАО «Автоваз»]. «Журнал Автомобильных Инженеров» (2014). Проверено 23 февраля 2015.

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Отрывок, характеризующий Лада Гольф

– Почему – давно, Изидора?– искренне удивился Север. – Это было лишь несколько сотен назад! А мы ведь живём намного дольше, ты знаешь. Как могла бы жить и ты, если бы захотела... – Несколько сотен?!!! – Север кивнул. – Но как же легенда?!.. Ведь по ней с его смерти прошло уже полторы тысячи лет?!.. – На то она «легенда» и есть... – пожал плечами Север, – Ведь если бы она была Истиной, она не нуждалась бы в заказных «фантазиях» Павла, Матфея, Петра и им подобных?.. При всём при том, что эти «святые» люди ведь даже и не видели никогда живого Христа! И он никогда не учил их. История повторяется, Изидора... Так было, и так будет всегда, пока люди не начнут, наконец, самостоятельно думать. А пока за них думают Тёмные умы – на Земле всегда будет властвовать лишь борьба... Север умолк, как бы решая, стоит ли продолжать. Но, немного подумав, всё же, заговорил снова... – «Думающие Тёмные», время от времени дают человечеству нового Бога, выбирая его всегда из самых лучших, самых светлых и чистых,… но именно тех, которых обязательно уже нет в Круге Живых. Так как на мёртвого, видишь ли, намного легче «одеть» лживую «историю его Жизни», и пустить её в мир, чтобы несла она человечеству лишь то, что «одобрялось» «Думающими Тёмными», заставляя людей окунаться ещё глубже в невежество Ума, пеленая Души их всё сильнее в страх неизбежной смерти, и надевая этим же оковы на их свободную и гордую Жизнь... – Кто такие – Думающие Тёмные, Север? – не выдержала я. – Это Тёмный Круг, в который входят «серые» Волхвы, «чёрные» маги, денежные гении (свои для каждого нового промежутка времени), и многое тому подобное. Проще – это Земное (да и не только) объединение «тёмных» сил. – И Вы не боретесь с ними?!!! Ты говоришь об этом так спокойно, как будто это тебя не касается!.. Но ты ведь тоже живёшь на Земле, Север! В его глазах появилась смертельная тоска, будто я нечаянно затронула нечто глубоко печальное и невыносимо больное. – О, мы боролись, Изидора!.. Ещё как боролись! Давно это было... Я, как и ты сейчас, был слишком наивным и думал, что стоит людям лишь показать, где правда, а где ложь, и они тут же кинутся в атаку за «правое дело». Это всего лишь «мечты о будущем», Изидора... Человек, видишь ли, существо легко уязвимое... Слишком легко поддающееся на лесть и жадность. Да и другие разные «человеческие пороки»... Люди в первую очередь думают о своих потребностях и выгодах, и только потом – об «остальных» живущих. Те, кто посильнее – жаждут Власти. Ну, а слабые ищут сильных защитников, совершенно не интересуясь их «чистоплотностью». И это продолжается столетиями. Вот почему в любой войне первыми гибнут самые светлые и самые лучшие. А остальные «оставшиеся» присоединяются к «победителю»... Так и идёт по кругу. Земля не готова мыслить, Изидора. Знаю, ты не согласна, ибо ты сама слишком чиста и светла. Но одному человеку не по силам свергнуть общее ЗЛО, даже такому сильному, как ты. Земное Зло слишком большое и вольное. Мы пытались когда-то... и потеряли лучших. Именно поэтому, мы будем ждать, когда придёт правильное время. Нас слишком мало, Изидора.

o-ili-v.ru

Лада Гольф — Википедия

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

LADA Golf

Общие данные

На рынке

Другое

Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

LADA Golf — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э[1]. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

Лада Гольф 1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

Снятые с производства

Прочие автомобили

gir.im

Лада Гольф — Википедия

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

LADA Golf

Общие данные

На рынке

Другое

Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

LADA Golf — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э[1]. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

Лада Гольф 1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

Снятые с производства

Прочие автомобили

ru.bywiki.com

Лада Гольф Википедия

LADA Golf

Общие данные

На рынке

Другое

Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

LADA Golf — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

ВАЗ-1004

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э[1]. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

ВАЗ-1002

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

ВАЗ-1004Т

Лада Гольф 1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

Источник

Примечания

Снятые с производства

Прочие автомобили

wikiredia.ru

Лада Гольф - WikiVisually

1. АВТОВАЗ – AvtoVAZ is the Russian automobile manufacturer formerly known as VAZ, Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod, but better known to the world under the trade name Lada. The current company name is AvtoVAZ and it was set up as a collaboration between Italy and the Soviet Union and built on the banks of the Volga River in 1966. A new town, Tolyatti, named after the Italian Communist Party leader Palmiro Togliatti, was built around the factory, the Lada was envisaged as a peoples car like the Citroën 2CV or the VW Type 1. Production was intended to be 220,000 cars a year, beginning in 1971, the lightweight Italian Fiat 124, which had won the 1967 European Car of the Year, was adapted in order to survive treacherous Russian driving conditions. Among many changes, aluminium brake drums were added to the rear, and this new engine had a modern overhead camshaft design, but was never used in Fiat cars. The suspension was raised to clear rough Russian roads and the bodyshell was made thicker, heavier steel. The first Lada models were equipped with a handle in case the battery went flat in Siberian conditions. Another feature specifically intended to help out in cold conditions was an auxiliary fuel pump. About 22,000 VAZ-2101s were built in 1970, with capacity at the end of 1973 reaching 660,000 a year,21 December, a third production line was added in October 1974, boosting output to 2,230 cars a day. The same year, total VAZ production reached 1.5 million, under the original agreement with Fiat, the car could not be sold in competition with the 124 until its replacement had been released and all Fiat production of the 124 had ceased. Engines fitted to the original Ladas start with the 1.2 L carburetted in the original, diesel engines were later fitted for the domestic market only. The drivetrain is a simple rear-wheel drive setup with a rear axle. The engine is a four with two valves per cylinder and a single overhead camshaft. The Fiat-derived Ladas featured various headlights, trim and body styles, the original, Fiat-based models included the VAZ-2101 sedan and the VAZ-2102 station wagon. 1972 saw the introduction of a version of the sedan, VAZ-2103. In 1974, the original VAZ-2101 was updated with new engines and interiors, the body style with two round headlights was manufactured until 1988. The VAZ-2106, introduced in December 1975 as a version of the VAZ-2103, was based on the 1972 Fiat 124 Special T, featuring different interiors. The 2106 was one of the most popular rear-wheel drive AvtoVAZ models in the past, its production ended in 2001 from Tolyatti, in 1974, VAZ was given permission to begin producing Wankel engines under licence from NSU

2. Тольятти – Tolyatti, also known in English as Togliatti, is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia. It is the largest city in Russia which does not serve as the center of a federal subject. Internationally, the city is best known as the home of Russias largest car manufacturer AvtoVAZ and it was founded in 1737 as a fortress called Stavropol by the Russian statesman Vasily Tatishchev. Informally it was referred as Stavropol-on-Volga to distinguish from Stavropol. In 1964, the city was renamed Tolyatti, within the framework of administrative divisions, Tolyatti serves as the administrative center of Stavropolsky District, even though it is not a part of it. As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Tolyatti—an administrative unit with the equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Tolyatti is incorporated as Tolyatti Urban Okrug, other industries have moved into Tolyatti because it is close to abundant supplies of electricity and water. Petrochemicals are well represented in the city, among the significant enterprises based there are TogliattiAzot and KuibyshevAzot. Other industries include building materials production, ship repair and electrical equipment, in 2011 the Togliatti Special Economic Zone was launched in order to develop the region further and diversify the economy of the city. Several auto-component producers have since been registered, as well as large industrial manufacturers, by November 2012 the value of project investment totalled 10 billion Rubles and around 3000 jobs were being created. The transport system is developed in the city. Public transport includes buses and trolley-buses, and so-called alternative transport or marshrutkas. External transport routes are provided by two bus stations, two stations and a city harbour. Tolyatti has its airport as well, but it is used by personal aircraft only, the city is linked to the federal road network by the M5 Ural highway. A recent notable event was the 1998 opening of the large Tatishchev Monument near the Volga, the Transfiguration Cathedral was completed in 2002. Education is represented by one hundred public and ten private schools. Current Montreal Canadiens defensemen Alexei Emelin, and Former Washington Capitals winger Viktor Kozlov, Tolyatti is represented in almost every kind of team sports. Tolyattis Lada-sponsored Ice Hockey Club broke the Moscow teams domination of the game, mens football, basketball, speedway and handball teams also take part in national championships

3. Россия – Russia, also officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля. In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians

4. Классификация автомобилей – Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others. This article details commonly used classification schemes in use worldwide, vehicles can be categorized in numerous ways. Regulatory agencies may also establish a vehicle classification system for determining a tax amount, in the United Kingdom, a vehicle is taxed according to the vehicles construction, engine, weight, type of fuel and emissions, as well as the purpose for which it is used. Other jurisdictions may determine vehicle tax based upon environmental principles, such as the user pays principle, another standard for road vehicles of all types that is used internationally, is ISO 3833-1977. In the United States, since 2010 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety uses a scheme it has developed that takes into account a combination of both shadow and weight. The United States Federal Highway Administration has developed a scheme used for automatically calculating road use tolls. There are two categories depending on whether the vehicle carries passengers or commodities. Vehicles that carry commodities are further subdivided by number of axles and number of units, the United States Environmental Protection Agency has developed a classification scheme used to compare fuel economy among similar vehicles. Passenger vehicles are classified based on a total interior passenger. Trucks are classified based upon their gross vehicle weight rating, heavy duty vehicles are not included within the EPA scheme. A similar set of classes is used by the Canadian EPA, in Australia, the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries publishes its own classifications. This is a table listing several different methods of vehicle classification. Straddling the boundary between car and motorbike, these vehicles have engines under 1.0 litre, typically only two passengers, and are sometimes unorthodox in construction. Some microcars are three-wheelers, while the majority have four wheels, microcars were popular in post-war Europe, where their appearance led them to be called Bubble cars. More recent microcars are often electric powered, the size of ultracompact cars will be less than minicars, but have engine greater than 50cc displacement and able to transport 1 or 2 persons. Ultracompact cars cannot use standard, because of strict safety standards for minicars. The regulation about running capacity and safety performance of cars will be published in early autumn. Today, there are smaller than ultracompact cars, called category-1 motorized vehicles which it has 50cc displacement or less

5. Машина для гольфа – A golf cart is a small vehicle designed originally to carry two golfers and their golf clubs around a golf course or on desert trails with less effort than walking. They are generally around 4 feet wide ×8 feet long ×6 feet high and weigh 900 pounds to 1,000 pounds, most are powered by 4-stroke engines. The price of a cart can range anywhere from under US$1,000 to well over US$20,000 per cart. These factors may include whether or not a fleet of carts is being purchased for a course or a country club, for example. Other factors may include such as equipment requirements, and how many people the cart is meant to transport. With the rise in popularity of golf carts, many golf clubs or country clubs offer storage and this has led to the modification of golf carts to suit use at the particular golf course. Typical modification includes windshields, ball cleaners, cooler trays, upgraded motor or speed controller, originally golf carts were electrically powered, but in time gasoline-powered variants started to occur. The electric variety is now used in communities where their lack of pollutants, lack of noise. These may resemble the golf carts shown above, although some are now being made with all-weather car-like bodies, the minimum age to drive a golf cart is 13 in Georgia, Alabama, California, Kansas, Kentucky, Rhode Island, Vermont, and South Carolina. Other US states, such as Florida, have an age of 14–15 years. Later, he purchased a cart and found that it worked poorly on a golf course, the first electric golf cart was custom made in 1932, but did not gain widespread acceptance. In the 1930s until the 1950s the most widespread use of carts were for those with disabilities who could not walk far. By the mid 1950s the golf cart had gained acceptance with golfers. Merle Williams of Long Beach, California was an innovator of the electric golf cart. He started with knowledge gained from production of electric cars due to World War II gasoline rationing, in 1951 his Marketeer Company began production of an electric golf cart in Redlands, California. E-Z-Go began producing cars in 1954, Cushman in 1955, Club Car in 1958, Taylor-Dunn in 1961, Harley-Davidson in 1963, Yamaha Golf Car in 1979. Max Walker created the first gasoline-powered golf cart The Walker Executive in 1957 and this three-wheeled vehicle was shaped with a Vespa-style front end and, like any golf cart, carried two passengers and bags. In 1963, the Harley Davidson Motor Company began producing golf cars, over the years they manufactured and distributed thousands of three and four-wheeled gas and electric vehicles that are still highly sought after

6. Дизайн – Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction. Design has different connotations in different fields, in some cases, the direct construction of an object is also considered to use design thinking. Designing often necessitates considering the aesthetic, functional, economic, and it may involve considerable research, thought, modeling, interactive adjustment, and re-design. Meanwhile, diverse kinds of objects may be designed, including clothing, graphical user interfaces, skyscrapers, corporate identities, business processes, and even methods or processes of designing. Thus design may be a substantive referring to an abstraction of a created thing or things. It is an act of creativity and innovation, here, a specification can be manifested as either a plan or a finished product, and primitives are the elements from which the design object is composed. With such a broad denotation, there is no language or unifying institution for designers of all disciplines. This allows for many differing philosophies and approaches toward the subject, the person designing is called a designer, which is also a term used for people who work professionally in one of the various design areas usually specifying which area is being dealt with. A designers sequence of activities is called a process while the scientific study of design is called design science. Another definition of design is planning to manufacture an object, system, thus the word design can be used as a noun or a verb. In a broader sense, the design is an applied art, while the definition of design is fairly broad, design has a myriad of specifications that professionals utilize in their fields. Substantial disagreement exists concerning how designers in many fields, whether amateur or professional, alone or in teams, the prevailing view has been called The Rational Model, Technical Problem Solving and The Reason-Centric Perspective. The alternative view has been called Reflection-in-Action, Evolutionary Design, co-evolution, the Rational Model was independently developed by Herbert A. Simon, an American scientist, and Gerhard Pahl and Wolfgang Beitz, two German engineering design theorists. The Rational Model is based on a rationalist philosophy and underlies the waterfall model, systems development life cycle, according to the rationalist philosophy, design is informed by research and knowledge in a predictable and controlled manner. Technical rationality is at the center of the process, each stage has many associated best practices. Unrealistic assumptions – goals are often unknown when a design project begins, the Action-Centric Perspective is a label given to a collection of interrelated concepts, which are antithetical to The Rational Model. Substantial empirical evidence supports the veracity of this perspective in describing the actions of real designers, like the Rational Model, the Action-Centric model sees design as informed by research and knowledge. Designers context-dependent experience and professional judgment take center stage more than technical rationality, at least two views of design activity are consistent with the Action-Centric Perspective

7. Компоновка легкового автомобиля – In automotive design, the automobile layout describes where on the vehicle the engine and drive wheels are found. Many different combinations of engine location and driven wheels are found in practice, factors influencing the design choice include cost, complexity, reliability, packaging, weight distribution, and the vehicles intended handling characteristics. Layouts can roughly be divided into two categories, front- or rear-wheel drive, four-wheel-drive vehicles may take on the characteristics of either, depending on how power is distributed to the wheels. Front-wheel-drive layouts are those in which the front wheels of the vehicle are driven, the most popular layout used in cars today is the front-engine, front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the front axle, driving the front wheels. As the steered wheels are also the wheels, FF cars are generally considered superior to FR cars in conditions such as snow, mud. The weight of the engine over the wheels also improves grip in such conditions. Electronic traction control can avoid wheelspin but largely negates the benefit of extra torque/power, a transverse engine is commonly used in FF designs, in contrast to FR which uses a longitudinal engine. This is another reason luxury/sports cars avoid the FF layout, exceptions do exist, such as the Volvo S80 which uses transversely mounted inline 6 and V8 engines, and the Ford Taurus SHO, available with a 60° V8 and front-wheel drive. There are some exceptions to this as rear engine designs do not take away interior space and it also has fewer components overall and thus lower weight. However, this may apply for cars with moderate power-to-weight ratio. According to road test with two Dodge Daytonas, one FWD and one RWD, the layout is also important for what configuration is the fastest. Weight shifting limits the acceleration of a front-wheel-drive vehicle, however, since front-wheel-drive cars have the weight of the engine over the driving wheels, the problem only applies in extreme conditions in which case the car understeers. On snow, ice, and sand, rear-wheel drive loses its traction advantage to front or all-wheel-drive vehicles which have greater weight over the driven wheels. Rear-wheel-drive cars with engine or mid engine configuration retain traction over the driven wheels. A rear-wheel-drive cars centre of gravity is shifted rearward when heavily loaded with passengers or cargo, on front-wheel-drive cars, the short driveshaft may reduce drivetrain elasticity, improving responsiveness. Instead, the tunnel may be used to route the exhaust system pipes. Weight, Fewer components usually means lower weight, improved fuel efficiency due to less weight. Cost, Fewer material components and less installation complexity overall, however, the considerable MSRP differential between a FF and FR car cannot be attributed to layout alone. Few modern family cars have rear-wheel drive as of 2009, so a direct cost comparison is not necessarily possible, assembly efficiency, the powertrain can often be assembled and installed as a unit, which allows more efficient production

8. Двигатель – An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines burn a fuel to heat, which is then used to create a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use energy to create forces. The word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults, trebuchets and battering rams, were called siege engines, the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines. In this manner, an engine in its original form was merely a water pump. Devices converting heat energy into motion are commonly referred to simply as engines, examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include turbofans and rockets, the term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to set in motion, or maintain motion. Thus a motor is a device that imparts motion, motor and engine later came to be used largely interchangeably in casual discourse. However, technically, the two words have different meanings, however, rocketry uses the term rocket motor, even though they consume fuel. A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by a combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius, Frontinus and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, by the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times

9. Лошадиная сила – Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power. There are many different standards and types of horsepower, two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is approximately 746 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of engines with the power of draft horses. It was later expanded to include the power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions, most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1,2010, units called horsepower have differing definitions, The mechanical horsepower, also known as imperial horsepower equals approximately 745.7 watts. It was defined originally as exactly 550 foot-pounds per second [745.7 N. m/s), the metric horsepower equals approximately 735.5 watts. It was defined originally as 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts, the Pferdestärke PS is a name for a group of similar power measurements used in Germany around the end of the 19th century, all of about one metric horsepower in size. The boiler horsepower equals 9809.5 watts and it was used for rating steam boilers and is equivalent to 34.5 pounds of water evaporated per hour at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. One horsepower for rating electric motors is equal to 746 watts, one horsepower for rating Continental European electric motors is equal to 735 watts. Continental European electric motors used to have dual ratings, one British Royal Automobile Club horsepower can equal a range of values based on estimates of several engine dimensions. It is one of the tax horsepower systems adopted around Europe, the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. He had previously agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines and this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined that a horse could turn a mill wheel 144 times in an hour, the wheel was 12 feet in radius, therefore, the horse travelled 2.4 × 2π ×12 feet in one minute. Watt judged that the horse could pull with a force of 180 pounds-force. So, P = W t = F d t =180 l b f ×2.4 ×2 π ×12 f t 1 m i n =32,572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft·lbf/min, Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt then judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony, engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton initially estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute

10. Электрический аккумулятор – It is composed of one or more electrochemical cells. The term accumulator is used as it accumulates and stores energy through an electrochemical reaction. Rechargeable batteries are produced in different shapes and sizes, ranging from button cells to megawatt systems connected to stabilize an electrical distribution network. Several different combinations of materials and electrolytes are used, including lead–acid, nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, lithium ion. Some rechargeable battery types are available in the sizes and voltages as disposable types. Devices which use rechargeable batteries include automobile starters, portable devices, light vehicles, tools, uninterruptible power supplies. Emerging applications in hybrid internal combustion-battery and electric vehicles drive the technology to reduce cost, weight, and size, Battery storage power stations use rechargeable batteries for load-leveling and for renewable energy uses. Load-leveling reduces the power which a plant must be able to generate, reducing capital cost. The US National Electrical Manufacturers Association estimated in 2006 that US demand for batteries was growing twice as fast as demand for disposables. Small rechargeable batteries can power portable devices, power tools, appliances. Heavy-duty batteries power electric vehicles, ranging from scooters to locomotives and they are used in distributed electricity generation and in stand-alone power systems. During charging, the active material is oxidized, producing electrons. These electrons constitute the current flow in the external circuit, the energy used to charge rechargeable batteries usually comes from a battery charger using AC mains electricity, although some are equipped to use a vehicles 12-volt DC power outlet. Regardless, to energy in a secondary cell, it has to be connected to a DC voltage source. The negative terminal of the cell has to be connected to the terminal of the voltage source. Chargers take from a few minutes to several hours to charge a battery, slow dumb chargers without voltage or temperature-sensing capabilities will charge at a low rate, typically taking 14 hours or more to reach a full charge. Rapid chargers can typically charge cells in two to five hours, depending on the model, with the fastest taking as little as fifteen minutes, fast chargers must have multiple ways of detecting when a cell reaches full charge to stop charging before harmful overcharging or overheating occurs. The fastest chargers often incorporate cooling fans to keep the cells from overheating, Battery charging and discharging rates are often discussed by referencing a C rate of current

11. АВТОВАЗ – AvtoVAZ is the Russian automobile manufacturer formerly known as VAZ, Volzhsky Avtomobilny Zavod, but better known to the world under the trade name Lada. The current company name is AvtoVAZ and it was set up as a collaboration between Italy and the Soviet Union and built on the banks of the Volga River in 1966. A new town, Tolyatti, named after the Italian Communist Party leader Palmiro Togliatti, was built around the factory, the Lada was envisaged as a peoples car like the Citroën 2CV or the VW Type 1. Production was intended to be 220,000 cars a year, beginning in 1971, the lightweight Italian Fiat 124, which had won the 1967 European Car of the Year, was adapted in order to survive treacherous Russian driving conditions. Among many changes, aluminium brake drums were added to the rear, and this new engine had a modern overhead camshaft design, but was never used in Fiat cars. The suspension was raised to clear rough Russian roads and the bodyshell was made thicker, heavier steel. The first Lada models were equipped with a handle in case the battery went flat in Siberian conditions. Another feature specifically intended to help out in cold conditions was an auxiliary fuel pump. About 22,000 VAZ-2101s were built in 1970, with capacity at the end of 1973 reaching 660,000 a year,21 December, a third production line was added in October 1974, boosting output to 2,230 cars a day. The same year, total VAZ production reached 1.5 million, under the original agreement with Fiat, the car could not be sold in competition with the 124 until its replacement had been released and all Fiat production of the 124 had ceased. Engines fitted to the original Ladas start with the 1.2 L carburetted in the original, diesel engines were later fitted for the domestic market only. The drivetrain is a simple rear-wheel drive setup with a rear axle. The engine is a four with two valves per cylinder and a single overhead camshaft. The Fiat-derived Ladas featured various headlights, trim and body styles, the original, Fiat-based models included the VAZ-2101 sedan and the VAZ-2102 station wagon. 1972 saw the introduction of a version of the sedan, VAZ-2103. In 1974, the original VAZ-2101 was updated with new engines and interiors, the body style with two round headlights was manufactured until 1988. The VAZ-2106, introduced in December 1975 as a version of the VAZ-2103, was based on the 1972 Fiat 124 Special T, featuring different interiors. The 2106 was one of the most popular rear-wheel drive AvtoVAZ models in the past, its production ended in 2001 from Tolyatti, in 1974, VAZ was given permission to begin producing Wankel engines under licence from NSU

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Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

LADA Golf — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

ВАЗ-1004

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

ВАЗ-1002

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

ВАЗ-1004Т

Лада Гольф 1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

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Лада Гольф - Gpedia, Your Encyclopedia

LADA Golf

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Дизайнер: В. Плешанов

LADA Golf — семейство российских электромобилей, выпущенных единичными экземплярами. Разработаны для эксплуатации на спортивных площадках и парковых зонах.

ВАЗ-1004

Первая модификация семейства Лада Гольф, работа над которой началась в 1999 году. Это были открытые переднеприводные четырёхместные электромобили. Тяговый электродвигатель и электропривод, передняя подвеска и рулевое управление были использованы от ВАЗ-1111Э[1]. На борту были установлены свинцовые аккумуляторные батареи ёмкостью 120 А•ч. Максимальная скорость составляла 24 км/ч, запас хода до 40 км.

ВАЗ-1002

Дальнейшее развитие линейки — двухместная грузопассажирская модификация. После испытаний первых образцов ВАЗ-1004 на пересечённой местности обнаружилась недостаточность сцепления передней оси из-за её недозагруженности при движении по мокрой траве на крутых подъёмах. Поэтому следующие образцы были сделаны заднеприводными, при этом других конструктивных отличий не было. Всего было изготовлено 3 экземпляра ВАЗ-1002, которые были переданы заказчику — московскому гольф-клубу.

ВАЗ-1004Т

Лада Гольф 1004Т

В 2001 году была разработана модификация четырёхместного электромобиля Лада Гольф с крышей. Она была представлена в том же году на Московском автосалоне.

  • Дальнейшее развитие идеи гольф-каров АвтоВАЗ воплотил в концепте Лада Рикша.

Источник

Примечания

Снятые с производства

Прочие автомобили

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